The American War of Independence
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, thirteen colonies were set-up along the Atlantic coast of North America claimed by England (1). These settlements offered the colonists hopes for better lives and economic opportunities, as well as political and personal liberties, deprived to them in Great Britain (2). Since then, the colonies enjoyed prosperity and self-government although they still consider themselves subjects of England.
Relations between the mother country and her American colonies grew weaker over time. The British mercantilist view that the colonies should supply England with raw material at a cheap price and not compete with manufacturing resented the Americans. Consistent with these policies, the British Parliament enacted the Navigation Acts in 1660 which regulated American trades with foreign countries; the Hat Act (1732), which forbidden the exportation of hats made in the colonies; and the Iron Act (1750), which outlawed the manufacturing of iron goods (3). The purpose of these laws was to prevent the colonies from developing their own industries and instead import British-made products. Although there was a special ties that bonds the colonies with England, they are not subservient to the whims of either the king or the British Parliament.
Resentful of the British policies as they were, the colonies still supported the British in driving off the French menace in North America. The French, as early as 1613, has been expanding its possessions in Quebec until they finally took possession of the vast Mississippi Valley. The French expansion were resisted by the British which led to four wars: The King Williams War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War and the French and Indian War. The first three wars were generally indecisive and the French remained in a strong position in North America. However, the French and Indian War took a fatal blow to the French dream of dominating North America. The war resulted in a British victory and finally sealed which country would dominate the North American continent.
The British dominance in North America would soon be challenge as relations with the thirteen colonies worsen. Another cloud of war looms over the North American skies for the next thirteen years after the French and Indian War as the colonies and the British differs over policies on the spoils of the war and the unjust taxations imposed by the Britain.
On July 4, 1776, the colonies proclaimed their independence from Britain and the conflict between Britain and the colonies exploded into a seven-year War of Independence until the Battle of Yorktown with the defeat of Lt. Gen. Lord Charles Cornwallis.
Statement of the Problems
The research aims to resolved the following problems:
· What convinced many Americans that independence was the best solution with their problem with Britain?
· What problems did the American and the British forces faced during the war of Independence?
The researcher, in coming up with this research, used various books and scholarly magazines pertaining to the topic at the University of the Philippines-Diliman Main Library, University of the Philippines Manila College of Arts and Sciences Library and the De La Salle University Library- American Studies section. He also used his extensive collection of National Geographic (1922-2003) magazines in this research.
THE ROAD TO WAR
A. British Policies in Former New France
Having defeated the French in 1756, the British became the undisputed master of North America from Canada in the north to Florida in the south and from the Atlantic coast in the east to the Mississippi valley in the west.
The immediate task that confronted the British after the war was the organization and defense of the newly acquired territories west of the Appalachians. Fearing the westward expansion of the thirteen colonies might provoke series of Indian wars King George III, with the advise of the Privy Council, issued a royal proclamation on October 7, 1763, known as the Proclamation of 1763 which reserved the lands west of the Appalachians to the Indians
And whereas it is just and reasonable, and essential to our interest and the security of our colonies, that the several nations or tribes of the Indians with whom we are connected, and who lived under our protection, should not be molested or disturbed in the possessions of such parts our dominions and territories as, not having been ceded to or purchased by us, are reserved to them, or any of them as their hunting-grounds. (4)
Though the Proclamation was not effectively enforced, this act started of the overt parting of ways between Britain and her American colonies. To the colonies, the proclamation runs contrary to their interests and rights to occupy and exploit western lands as needed.
B. Taxation without Representation
The recent war cost Britain huge amount of money. Britain?s national debt nearly doubled during the war, from £ 72,000,000 to over £ 123,000,000 (5). However the debt grew even higher after the war when the Indian rose up against the British occupation and intrusion.
Though the British were able to pacify the Indians through arms and diplomacy, they learned that they have to maintain sufficient troops to secure the new acquisitions. The annual cost of maintaining civil and military establishments in America soared from £70,000 in 1748 to £350,000 in 1764.
The situation in America was anything but favorable to change. To offset the cost of maintaining troops, the British Parliament saw it fit that the American colonies should also pay their shares of the burden. Thus, the Parliament enacted a series of laws that imposes additional taxes to the colonies, which the latter resisted.
The first step in inaugurating the new British economic policies to the colonies was the enactment of the Sugar Act or the Revenue Act. The law amended the old Molasses Act of 1733, which prohibits the importation of rum and molasses outside the British Empire. The Sugar Act reduced the duties on foreign molasses in order to curb smuggling in the colonies. However it raised duties on other products such as indigo, foreign sugar, wines, coffee, cloth, calico, silk, and others.
The act likewise regulated commercial trade practices of the colonies. The law stipulated that the colonists could export lumber, iron, skins, hides, whalebone, logwood, and other commodities to foreign countries only if shipments landed first in Britain.
The act was bitterly opposed by the American colonist especially the merchants and traders who were hit hard by the new restrictions. The law made it hard for them to trade with their trading partners such as France, Portugal, Germany and the Netherlands. The law also made trading more complicated since they have to fill out series of documents to prove the legality of his trade (6). Further, it alarmed the colonists because it threatens their economic and political interests. Unfortunately, the opposition remained divided, fragmented and ineffective.
The Sugar Act was not enough to raise sufficient revenues to ease Britain?s financial woes. Thus on March 22, 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act. The new law required that revenue stamps be affixed not only to official documents but also in newspapers, pamphlet, calendars, advertisements, gazettes, almanacs and other documents in American colonies. The British expected the new measures to raise an additional £60,000 to the British coffer. The British were also optimistic that the new measure would arouse little opposition in the colonies. They were wrong.
It was violently opposed by the Thirteen Colonies especially those who were affected most: lawyers, newspapermen, publishers, bankers, industrialists, investors, realtors and even the clerics. Businesses were down as trade with Britain fell by £300,000 in 1765 (7).
On May 29, 1765, the Virginia House of Burgesses passed the resolutions introduced by Patrick Henry after his impassioned ?Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Cromwell? speech, which asserted the power of the colonial governments to the colonies against the British interference:
The General Assembly of this Colony have only and sole exclusive rights and power to lay taxes and impositions upon the inhabitants of this Colony, are not bound to yield obedience to any law or ordinance whatever, designed to impose any taxation whatsoever upon them, other than the laws or ordinances of the General Assembly aforesaid.(8) ?
This resolution was followed by Instructions of the Town of Braintree Massachusetts on the Stamp Tax written by John Adams, which opined the tax as unconstitutional (9).
On June 8, 1765, delegates from nine colonies convened the Stamp Act Congress in New York to challenge the validity of the Stamp Tax and to question the right of the Parliament to tax the colonies. Further, the Congress also sent petitions to the King and the Parliament asking them to repeal the assailed law.
Furthermore, a group of patriots organized the Sons and Daughters of Liberty throughout the colonies aimed at paralyzing British trade in the colonies through boycott of British goods. On February 11, 1766 a group of London merchants petitioned the Parliament requesting the repeal of the Stamp Tax (10). The Parliament reluctantly repealed the Stamp Tax.
To reduce the cost of maintaining troops in America, the Parliament enacted the Quartering Act on March 24, 1765. The law provided living quarters such as barracks or hired uninhabited houses; outhouses; barns or other buildings and other supplies for British troops.
Despite widespread opposition in the colonies, the Parliament continued to exercise its power to tax the colonies. In 1767, it passed three Townshend Acts. The first act suspended the legislative privileges of the New York assembly for failure to comply with the Quartering Act. The second act established a board of customs for the colonies. And the third but most unpopular act was the Townshend Revenue Act of 1767. The new measure raised taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea.
The colonists greeted the enactment of the Townshend Acts with opposition and resentment. Merchants and traders throughout the colonies agreed not to import British goods.
American resentments were further aggravated when British soldiers fired at a group of American protesters killing five persons and wounding several others (11).
In 1773 the Parliament enacted the Tea Act granting special privileges to the East India Company to sell tea, imported from China, to America. The Tea Act aroused resentments in the colonies, especially the American tea traders who feared the danger of monopoly. In response to the Tea Act, the colonies refused to unload tea cargoes from the Company ships. In Boston, the colonists went even further, by dumping hundred chests of tea into the Boston harbor on December 16, 1773 (12).
To punish the colonists, the Parliament enacted four Intolerable Acts. The first act, The Boston Port Act (13), closed the port of Boston to trade until it paid damages to the East India Company for the dumped tea. The second act, Massachusetts Government Act (14), was aimed to ?better? regulate ?the government of the province of Massachusetts Bay (15). The third act Administration of Justice Act (16), allowed royal officials charged with certain crimes to be tried in Britain or in another colony to avoid hostile colonial juries (17) and the fourth act, The Quebec Act (18) extended the territory of the French-dominated province of Quebec. The act also provided religious toleration to Catholics.
Enraged, the colonist convened the First Continental Congress on September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia at the Carpenter's Hall (19). Fifty-five delegates attended the congress, to name a few: George Washington, Patrick Henry, Peyton Randolph, Richard Henry Lee, the two Adams?s (John and Samuel), Thomas Mifflin, Caesar Rodney, Robert Paine, Joseph Galloway, James Bowdoin and James Cushing.
The First Continental Congress adopted a resolution containing their demands to King George III. The document conceded to Parliament the power to regulate colonial commerce, but it argued that all previous parliamentary efforts to impose taxes, enforce laws through admiralty courts (20) , suspend assemblies, and unilaterally revoke charters were unconstitutional (21). The British, however, were stubborn to give in to the American demands. Tensions mounted and the colonists began to organize for a possible open conflict with the British.
On April 18, 1775, after receiving information that Massachusetts patriots were collecting gunpowder and weapons, General Thomas Cage sent British troops to Concord to seize these munitions and arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, both of who had been wanted by England to stand trial. But Paul Revere and William Dawes had alerted the whole town.
Meanwhile, skirmishes broke out in Lexington between American militias (22) and British troops, killing eight militias and a British soldier. More skirmished followed after Lexington, such as those in Boston and Fort Ticonderoga
THE OUTBREAK OF A REVOLUTION
A. Separation from Mother Country
The Battle of Lexington and Concord made a deep scar in the relationship between Britain and the colonies. However, only few Americans favored separation from Britain. Many still hope that reconciliation with the mother country is still possible.
On May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress was convened in the Philadelphia Statehouse to discuss their dilemma with the British. They elected John Hancock - he of the dashing clothes and signature- its president (23). Some delegates were in favor of breaking-up with Britain, however cooler minds prevailed in the convention. With the persuasion of John Dickinson, the congress resolved to send a petition to King George III, presenting three demands (24): a cease-fire at Boston; repeal of the Intolerable Acts; and negotiation to establish guarantees of American rights (25).
On July 6, 1775, the Congress adopted the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms with a stern warning to Britain (26):
Our cause is just. Our union is perfect. Our internal resources are great, and, if necessary, foreign assistance is undoubtedly attainable. ?We gratefully acknowledge, as signal instances of the Divine favour towards us, that his Providence would not permit us to be called into these severe controversy, until we were grown up to our present strength, had been previously exercised in warlike operation, and possessed of the means of defending ourselves. With hearts fortified with these animating reflections, we most solemnly, before God and the world, declare that exerting the utmost energy of those power, which our beneficent Creator hath graciously bestowed upon us, the arms we have been compelled by our enemies to assume, we will, in defiance of every hazard, with unabating firmness and perseverance, employ for the preservation of our liberties; being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves.
Lest this declaration should disquiet the minds of our friends and fellow-subjects in any part of the empire, we assure them that we do mean not to dissolve that union which has so long and so happily subsisted between us, and which we sincerely wish to see restored. ? Necessity has not yet driven us into that desperate measure, or induced us to excite any other nation to war against them.- We have not raised armies with ambitious designs of separating from Great-Britain, and establishing independent states. We fight not for glory or for conquest. We exhibit to mankind the remarkable spectacle of a people attacked by unprovoked enemies, without any imputation or suspicion of offence. They boast of their privileges and civilization, and yet proffer no milder conditions than servitude or death.
Though Congress was attempting to reconcile with Britain, they were also preparing for the eventuality of a war with Britain. They organized a continental forces composed of militias under Col. George Washington, whom they appointed as its commander-in-chief.
However, king George turned a deaf ear and ignored the petition of the Congress and instead proclaimed a state of rebellion in the colonies and ordered its suppression (27) :
" we have thought fit, by and with the advise of the Privy Council, to issue our Royal Proclamation, hereby declaring, that not only our Officers, civil and military, are obliged to exert their utmost endeavours to suppress such rebellion, and to bring the traitors to justice, but that all our subjects of this Realm, and the dominations thereunto belonging, are bound by law to be aiding and assisting in the suppression of such rebellion, and to disclose all known traitorous conspiracies and attempts against us , our crown and dignity; and we do accordingly strictly charge and command all our Officers, as well civil as military, and all other obedient and loyal subjects, to use their utmost endeavours to withstand and suppress such rebellion, and to disclose and make known all treasons and traitorous conspiracies which they shall know to be against us, our crown and dignity"
On December 22, 1775, all trade and intercourses with the Thirteen Colonies was interdicted by Parliament (28).
Support for Independence grew since then as fighting and the colonists debated the issue (29). Public opinion were veered toward separation when Thomas Paine published his Common Sense.
On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted a resolution calling for independence (30):
?RESOLVED, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved.
That is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances.
That a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective Colonies for their consideration and approbation.?
But prior to the adoption of that resolution, Rhode Island had already declared its independence in May 1776 and North Carolina had authorized its delegates to vote for independence (31).
The task of drafting the Declaration of Independence went to the ?silent member? of Congress with a ?reputation of masterly pen?, Thomas Jefferson (32).
John Adams once recalled: ?Jefferson proposed to me to make the draught; I said I will not. You should do it. Oh! No. Why will you not? You ought to it. Why? Reason enough?you can write ten times better than I can (33). ?
Jefferson wrote the draft for seventeen days in a rented suit on a second floor of a brick house owned by Jacob Graff, Jr (34).
The Declaration set forth the grievances of the colonists and an assertion of their natural rights: freedom, dignity and equality (35). He believed that government should be based on reason alone.
July 4, 1776 was the beginning of the end of British rule in America- the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration stated that ?Government are instituted by Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and institute new Government.? In signing the declaration of independence, the Second Continental Congress formally cut the umbilical cord that binds the mother country (Britain) with her daughters.
B. Problems of the Americans
To declare an independence in one thing but to win it is another. For seven years, the Americans faced several obstacles to achieve their dream for a "Free and Independent States."
1. Divided Loyalties
Not all Americans were in favor of independence, substantial number of the colonists, about twenty percent, remained loyal to the Crown ? they are the Loyalists [or the unpopular Tories (36)]. Some Loyalists migrated to Canada; others joined the redcoats in America.
The Tories believed that separation from Britain was an illegal act certain to ignite an unnecessary war (37).
Recognizing the threats posed by the Tories to their cause, the Continental Congress broadened the law on espionage under the articles of War, which provides:
"RESOLVED, That all persons not members of, nor owing allegiance to, any of the United States of America, as described in a resolution to the Congress of the 29th of June last, who shall be found lurking as spies in our fortification or encampments of the armies of the United States, or of any of them, shall suffer death, according to the law and usage of nations, by sentence of a court-martial, or such other punishment as such court martial may direct."
On February 27, 1778 iti"include any "inhabitant of these states, whose intelligence activities aided the British in capturing or killing Patriots (38).
The Indians, who feared the threat posed by an independent America to their homelands and hunting grounds and likewise the Black slaves, lured by British promises of freedom, joined the British
2. Financial Problems of the Revolution
The Continental Army was hampered by lack of money and supplies. Food and clothing were the constant problems of the American soldiers.
The Continental Congress had difficulties in raising money to support the war effort because it has no power to levy taxes. Instead it has to rely on state?s contributions. Unfortunately, this method failed because most states contributed less or none at all, to what was required to support the troops.
The Continental Congress resorted to printing paper money (known as the Continental currency) to finance the war effort. However, the measure failed because it resulted in a disaster: the currency became worthless and triggered hyperinflation throughout the colonies.
With these problems, The Continental Army had difficulty of keeping men that was the reason why George Washington was forced to rely on state militias (39).
The war effort was also financed from foreign sources. The French secretly aided the Americans with $1,600,000 and a loan of $6,400,000. Spain (40) and Netherlands also extended loans of $150,000 and $1,300,000 respectively.
Fiscal management improved in 1781 with the assistance of France and the appointment of Robert Morris as superintendent of finance. Morris stopped waste and corruption in spending, introduced proper administrative methods, placed government finances on specie basis, organized the Bank of North America, fed the army by contract and procured decent uniforms; so that during the last year of the war, the army was better paid, clothed and fed (41).
C. The Problems of the British
The British entered the war as the most powerful nation in the world with the largest navy and the best equipped and trained armies. There was a saying that ?the sun never sets in the British Empire.? It seems that the American would stand no chances against the British. But on the contrary, the British were defeated and the Americans won.
At the outbreak of war, the total strength of the British army numbered 48,647 men, of which 399,294 were infantry; 6869 cavalry; and 2,484 artillery. However, they were unequally distributed among her colonies (42)[Please see the Table 1].
DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH FORCES, 1775
United Kingdom of Great Britain Colonies, Dependencies, and Territories
Isle of Man
Recognizing the need to end the war expediently, the Parliament doubled the armed forces from 45,000 to more than a hundred thousands. The Prussian Hanoverian family, relatives of King George III, also provided 30,000 hired mercenaries, known as the Hessians (44). Likewise, more than 21,000 Loyalists joined the British.
Although the British were more numerous and better trained in traditional warfare that the Continental Army and the militias, they were unaccustomed to the strike-and run fighting style of the Americans, and they were often surprised by American tactics (45).
However, more than 3,000 miles of ocean separates the British Isles and her colonies, making it difficult to transport troops and supplies. Ships containing much-needed food were often delayed for weeks by fogs, contrary winds and foul weather (46). Many ships were lost through storm or captured, and merchants were reluctant to lease ships to the government as s result (47).
Soon the Americans dominated the sea by capturing over 2,000 British ships and 16,000 crews.
On the other hand, food provisions were frequently poor in quality. In a report of one of the surveyors appointed to examine one of the cargos at New York, he found a ?very old Flour of different sorts and very inferior qualities and in general musty and rotten, several casks promiscuously taken being found all more or less to have maggots in them, some quite rotten and those that were best with a great mixture of Green Pea, which on boiling proves to have no substance and leaves little more than Husk (48).
The British military dilemma was further aggravated when the French (49) entered into a Franco- American alliance after the Battle of Saratoga (50).
On September 26, 1776, The Continental Congress elected Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee and Silas Deane as commissioners to the Royal Court of France. The unofficial diplomatic mission became intelligence and propaganda center for Europe, a coordinating facility for aid from America?s allies, and a recruiting station for such French officers as Marquis de Lafayette (51) and Kalb (52). On March 30, 1778, the three were received at the French Court as the representatives of the United States of America, and on July 7 France declared war on Britain with Comte d? Estaing?s French fleet cast anchor in the Delaware River (53).
Soon afterward, the British were forced to evacuate to Philadelphia. The Ohio Valley and the Northwest Territory fell to the hands of the Americans. However British resistance continued and successfully (though temporarily) overran Carolina and some parts of Virginia. But the French ferried Washington and his troops down the Chesapeake Bay to reach Virginia.
Lord Cornwallis, commander of the British forces abandoned his campaign southward and instead retreated his troops to Yorktown (54), Virginia. Cornwallis made headquarters in the mansion of Thomas Nelson. So this American general ordered a cannonade directed against his own home (55). From there Lord Cornwallis wrote to George Washington, " I propose a cessation of hostilities.(56) "
C. The Siege of Yorktown - 1781
Up to the very end of the Revolution the British had a great advantage because they controlled the sea and could shift troops easily and quickly, whereas the American forces had to make long, slow and energetic marches (57).
In August 1781, with 8,300 regulars and as many as 2,000 escaped slaves who believed British victory would mean freedom, Cornwallis began defensive earthworks around Yorktown and Gloucester Point (58). When he learned where Cornwallis was, Washington urged the French Admiral De Grasse to bottle up Cornwallis in Yorktown (59). In a month?s time, the British forces were already surrounded and trapped by the Franco-American troops in Yorktown. The British fleet (60) in New York tried to reinforce Cornwallis? troops but the superior force of French artillery overwhelmed them. Unable to get supplies and reinforcements, Cornwallis was forced to surrender on October 19, 1781. The revolution was won.
On February 27, 1782, the British Parliament passed a resolution urging King George III to end the war and to negotiate a peace treaty with the Americans. On the other hand, Congress appointed John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, and Thomas Jefferson to conduct the negotiations (61). On September 3, 1783 the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain was signed in Paris.
In an attempt to ease off her financial problems, Britain imposed a number of laws restricting colonial industry and trade, in complete disregard of their rights. The colonist protested but the British ignored it and instead imposed additional laws to forced the colonists to be subservient to the British will. The stubbornness of the British left the colonists with no option but to declare their independence, even if it cost their lives.
Their quest for an independent America led them to a seven-year war with Britain. In six years the British were winning the battle but not the war. The Americans suffered financially during the war but they did not undermine their determination to win the revolution. With the generous help from France, Spain and the Netherlands, and of course, the able leadership of Washington they were able to turn the tide of the war in their favor. And in October 1781, the British were finally defeated.
(1) The original thirteen colonies are as follows: Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Maryland, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Connecticut and Rhode Island.
(2) The Act of Union in 1707 united England and Scotland as United Kingdom of Great Britain.
(3) Marvin Perry. A History of the World, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Co., 1988.
(4) Henry Stelle Commager, ?The Proclamation of 1863,? Documents of American History, New York: Meredith Publishing Co., 48-49
(5) Paul S. Boyer, Clifford Clark, Joseph Kett, Neal Salisbury, Harvard Sitkoff, and Nancy Woloch. The Enduring Vision, Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company,
(6)Paul S. Boyer, Clifford Clark, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, Neal Salisbury, Harvard Sitkoff and Nancy Woloch. The Enduring Vision, Lexington, Ma. D.C. Heath and Company, 1993, p. 141.
(7) Samuel Elliot Morison and Henry Stelle Commager. The Growth of the American Republic, New York: Oxford University Press, 160
(8) Commager. ?The Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions?, Documents of American History, 55-56
(9) Ibid. 56-57
(10) See ?Petition of London Merchants Against the Stamp Tax? on Documents of American History by Henry Stelle Commager, p. 59.
(11) The incident is called as the Boston Massacre.
(12) The incident is called the Boston Tea Party.
(13) The Boston Port Act was enacted on March 31, 1774
(14) The Massachusetts Government Act was enacted on May 20, 1774
(15) ?Massachusetts Government Act,? Documents of American History, 72
(16) The Administration of Justice was enacted on May 20, 1774. The act states: The act states: ?That if any inquisition or indictment shall be found, or if any appeal shall be sued or preferred against any person, for murther [murder], or other capital offence, in the province of the Massachuset?s Bay, and shall appear?that the fact was committed by the person against whom such inquisition or indictment shall be found, or against whom such appeal shall be sued or preferred, as aforesaid, either in the execution of his duty as a magistrate, for the suppression of riots, or for carrying into effect the laws of revenue, or in acting under the direction and order of the ?governor.?
(17) Perry, 430
(18) The Quebec Act was enacted on June 22, 1774.
(19) John Oliver La Gorce. ?The Historic City of Brotherly Love,? The National Geographic Magazine, December 1932, p. 674. The meeting were originally planned at the Statehouse (the present Independence Hall), however, the Colonial Governor opposed its meeting, fearing that the effects of its deliberation upon his interest.
(20) A court exercising jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries or offenses.
(21) Boyer, p. 162
(22) Militias are known locally as minutemen.
(23) La Gorce, 674
(24) The Olive Branch Petition
(25) Boyer, 163
(26)?Declaration of Causes of Taking up Armies,? Documents of American History, 95.
(27) ?A Proclamation by the King for suppressing rebellion and Sedition,? Ibid, 96
(28) Samuel Elliot Morison and Henry Stelle Commager. The Growth of the American Republic, New York: Oxford University Press (1962), 187.
(30) Richard Henry Lee and John Adams introduced the resolution on June 7, 1776.
(31) Boyer, 164
(32) Frank Freidel, Jr. ?The Presidency and How it Grew; Profiles of the President Part I,? National Geographic March 1964,
(33)Thomas Jefferson: ?Architect of Freedom,? National Geographic, February 1976, 243.
(35) Jefferson was influenced by the Natural Rights political philosophy of John Locke.
(36) Originally applied to Presbyterians in Scots Gaelic. Then to a papist outlaw in Ireland who supported the hereditary right to the Crown of James despite his Catholic faith. After 1688 it was identified with those supporters of the Anglicanism and the squirearchy, not the Whiggish landed aristocracy, and with the financially well-off middle classes. Used today derogatorily to refer to conservatives rather than Labour, the left and the Social Democrats.
The name was also given, in America, during the struggle of the colonies for independence, to the party of those residents who favored the side of the British Crown and opposed independence.
(37) Boyer, 172
(38)Organization of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) publications; available from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/warindep/intellopos.shtml; Internet; accessed 2 October 2003.
(39) Perry, 433
(40) Spain, at the urging of French Foreign Minister Vergennes, matched France?s one million livres for the operation of Hortalez el Cie. But that was not the beginning of secret Spanish aid to the Patriots. During the summer of 1776 Luis de Unzaga y Amazega, the governor of New Spain, had privately delivered some ten thousand pounds of gunpowder to George Gibson and Lt. Linn of the Virginia Council of Defense. When Bernardo de Galvez became governor at New Orleans, he agreed to grant protection to American ships while seizing British ships as smugglers, and to allow American privateers to sell their contrabands at New Orleans. From Galvez the Patriots received gunpowder and supplies for the George Roger Clark expedition, and from Galvez? very secretive service fund came the funds used by Col. Clark for the capture of Kaskasia and Vincennes. Spain formally entered the war on June 21, 1779. (Organization of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency publications)
(41) Morrison, 203
(42) Edward Curtis, Ph.D. The Organization of the British Army in the American Revolution, London: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press (1926); Available from http://www.americanrevolution.org; Internet; accessed 2 October 2003.
(43) The figure does not include number of British troops in her Asian colonies, such as India, Burma and Ceylon
(44) Howard Peckham. The War of Independence A Military History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 38.
(46) Edward Curtis, Ph.D. Ibid.
(49) The French, ever since the French and Indian War 0f 1763, were eager for reprisal against the British, however, they were reluctant to risk direct confrontation with England before the Battle of Saratoga
(50) General Sir John Burgoyne moved down from Canada in a hope of isolating New England by taking the Hudson River line but the Vermont militia near Bennington repelled him. Burgoyne attempted again to put his force into action but he was repulsed by the troops led by Benedict Arnold and fell back to Saratoga. Unable to obtain supplies, Burgoyne surrendered on October 17, 1777.
(51) Lafayette was a French army officer who urged King Louis XVI to aid the Americans and to make a real effort to bring the war to an end.
(52) Organization of Intelligence.
(54) Prior to his retreat to Yorktown, Cornwallis had pursued Lafayette across the Virginia Piedmont but he failed to corner him.
(55) Howell Walker. ?History Keeps House in Virginia,? National Geographic, April 1956, 448.
(57) Albert W. Atwood. ?Tidewater Virginia,? National Geographic, May 1942, 632.
(58) John D. Broadwater. ?Yorktown Shipwreck,? National Geographic, June 1988, 808.
(59) Atwood, 632
(60)The fleet was under the command of Rear. Adm. Thomas Graves
(61) Commager, 117
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